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The Munter Hitch: The Most Valuable Knot a Climber Can Know

How many people think the figure eight is the most valuable knot a climber can know? What about a bowline, clove hitch, or flat overhand?


What about the Bachman, prussik, or alpine butterfly?


A climber practicing tying knots in Eldorado Canyon State Park
Practice makes perfect, especially when learning to tie knots and hitches!

While these are all great knots and hitches that every climber should know, our vote goes to the munter hitch!


Technically speaking, the munter is not a knot. It's a hitch. We know, we know: the title is misleading... But that's splitting hairs!


People always seem to think climbers know a ton of knots, but the reality is that we use a few in a lot of different ways. And the munter hitch is no exception!


History of the Munter Hitch

Why Use the Munter Hitch

How to Tie the Munter Hitch

Advanced Munter Hitch Applications



Two climbers practicing self rescue in Clear Creek Canyon
Many self rescue scenarios utilize the munter hitch.

The munter hitch, or Italian hitch, is quite versatile and has many uses including belaying, load transfers, and can easily be turned into a clove hitch. Any self rescue that we perform as a climber is based around proficiency with the munter hitch and its subsequent knots, the mule knot and the overhand knot.


This combination of knots and hitches is the foundation for many other technical rope skills like those utilized by Single Pitch Instructors.



History of the Munter Hitch


The munter hitch is named after Swiss mountain guide Werner Munter. He was born in 1941 in Lohnstorf, Switzerland where he worked as a mountain guide. While he is known for the munter hitch, he is most famous for his contributions to avalanche education and risk assessment of avalanche terrain, which he later documented in many books.


Throughout his time as a mountain guide, he introduced the munter hitch as a friction device for belaying, rappelling, and lowering a climber.


Originally known as the "Mezzo Barcaiolo", or crossing hitch in Italian, Werner was a strong advocate for it's use in the mountains. Munter must have been easier to say and the name has since stuck.


Today, many mountain guides use the munter hitch for belaying, lowering, self rescue, and extending anchors. While it's not as common for recreational climbers to use, it should be a tool in the toolbox for all climbers.


A rock climber belaying their partner with a Munter hitch
The munter hitch can provide a very fast belay while moving through 3rd and 4th class terrain.


Why Use the Munter Hitch?


The munter hitch has many uses in the climbing world. It is a belay device and crucial self rescue skill that all climbers venturing outdoors should know.


So what are the benefits of using the munter hitch over a traditional belay device?

  • The munter hitch is multidirectional - meaning it can act both as a raising device and as a lowering device

  • It generates more friction (or holding power) than a traditional belay device

  • When tied in combination with the mule and overhand knots, it is a releasable system

  • Simple and quick. All you need to tie the munter hitch is an HMS style carabiner and rope or cordellette

  • It can provide an incredible amount of security at the top of a cliff when setting up and extending anchors


So with all these benefits, why don't more climbers use it?


Well, the answer is simple. Climbers feel the munter hitch twists and kinks the rope.


While it does introduce some small amount of twist in the sheath of the rope (less than cleaning an anchor and lowering through Fixe rap rings), it can be easily mitigated. It all depends on where the brake strand is in relation to the load strand!


A munter hitch showing the brake strand and the load strand
You can minimize twists by keeping the brake strand parallel with the load strand. The farther from parallel they are, the more twists you'll get in your rope!


How to tie the Munter Hitch


The Basics

Let's start off easy. The munter hitch is quite easy to tie. The two most common ways to tie this hitch are the air munter and the one handed munter.


The Air Munter:

  1. Start by holding the rope out in front of you with your right hand crossed over your left hand. Hold the rope with your index finger and thumb.

  2. Move your left hand back to the left and underneath your right hand to create the first loop.

  3. To create the second loop, rotate your left hand upwards from a thumbs down position into a thumbs up position.

  4. Fold and pancake the loop in your right hand (rotate your hand clockwise) towards the loop in your left hand.

  5. Clip a locking carabiner where your left index finger is and you've successfully tied the munter hitch.

  6. Here's a link to a quick video on how to tie the air munter.


A rock climber tying the munter hitch
When in doubt, tie the air munter!

The One Handed Munter:

  1. Begin by holding the rope in your hand with your thumb facing upwards.

  2. Clip the rope into a locking carabiner to create the first loop of the munter.

  3. Reach around behind the right strand of rope (the piece coming out of the back of the carabiner) and grab the strand coming out of the front of the carabiner.

  4. Move the strand from left to right (behind everything) and clip it back into the locking carabiner.

  5. A munter hitch! This particular one is tied in the lowering configuration. After you lock your carabiner, you're ready to belay/lower or begin to transfer a load.


Tying a munter hitch on a carabiner
The one handed munter takes a little bit more practice.


Advanced Munter Hitch Applications


Now that we've got tying the munter dialed, let's add in a few unique twists and variations.


How to tell the load versus brake strand of a Munter:

Since the munter is multidirectional and can be used for belaying and lowering, it's crucial to know which strand of rope is the load strand and which is the brake strand.


Here's an easy way to identify which is which. Find the horseshoe.


When using the munter hitch in lowering mode - whichever strand is coming out through the middle of the horseshoe is going to be the load strand. The opposite strand will of course be the brake strand.


When using the munter hitch in its raising mode - whichever strand is coming out through the middle of the horseshoe is going to be the brake strand. The opposite strand will of course be the load strand.


A munter hitch in the lowering configuration
Can you guess which orientation this munter is tied in? If you guessed "lower" then you're correct!


The Munter Mule Overhand:

Commonly referred to as the MMO or baseline, this combination of knots and hitches is where self rescue begins from. This is a great way to go hands free and makes it extremely easy to transition into a raise, lower, or other form of technical descent.

  1. Begin by tying the munter hitch on a locking carabiner.

  2. Make a loop upwards on the brake strand with your right hand. It's important to make sure the load strand and brake strand stay parallel here. We don't want any crosses between them.

  3. Grab the brake strand below the loop and pass a bight over the load strand and through the loop.

  4. Pull the bight tight as you push up on the newly formed mule knot.

  5. Now tie an overhand on a bight around the load strand with the bight trying to keep everything as close to the original munter as possible.


A climber tying the munter mule overhand
Commonly referred to as the MMO or baseline, the munter mule overhand is where many self rescue scenarios begin from.

Mule knot diagram: correct versus incorrect
Can you see the difference? The picture on the left shows a mule knot tied correctly. An easy way to double check is that the mule knot captures both the load and brake strand. The picture on the right is a mule knot tied incorrectly.


Turning a Munter into a Clove hitch:

Want to belay a follower up to your anchor and secure them without tying the munter mule overhand? Enter the clove hitch!

  1. Begin by tying the munter hitch on a locking carabiner.

  2. Grab the brake strand with your thumb facing upwards and make a loop. The load strand and brake strand should be parallel with no twists in between.

  3. Clip this new loop back into the locking carabiner. If you're so inclined, you can take the extra piece of rope in the carabiner out to make it look like the clove hitch we are all used to seeing.


Turning a munter hitch into a clover hitch
The munter is easy to convert into a clover hitch.


Turning the Munter into a Self Locking Belay Device:

Sometimes it can be really nice to have a little more control of the brake strand while belaying a follower. We typically accomplish this with a plate device or assisted braking device such as a GriGri.


We can create a similar system with the munter hitch. This can give you an opportunity to take pictures, eat and drink, and look at the route topo while actively belaying.


While not the most practical technique for belaying when the chance of falling is high and the second needs to be lowered, this technique is excellent for hauling a pack through a crux pitch as the extra carabiner acts as a progress capture device.


  1. Begin by tying the munter hitch on a locking carabiner.

  2. Take another locking carabiner and clip it through one strand of the horseshoe and the brake strand.

  3. We've now created a self locking munter. Something to be aware of here is that the brake strand and load strand have flip-flopped.


Tying the self locking munter hitch
The self locking munter has its brake and load strands flip-flopped.


The Super Munter:

Sometimes it can be really nice to have extra friction. A few examples could be belaying a heavier follower or rappelling on a munter hitch with an injured climber.


The extra friction of the super munter can increase our braking ability and give us more control, especially if we are lowering a lot of weight.


  1. Begin by tying the munter hitch on a locking carabiner.

  2. Reach over the load strand and grab the brake strand with your thumb facing down.

  3. Turn your hand into a thumbs up position and clip the loop into the locking carabiner.


A climber tying the super munter
The super munter is a great choice when lowering very heavy load as it gives us an insanely high amount of friction!


Real World Application of the Munter:

Imagine you've just topped out a pitch and the belay ledge is sloping and full of loose rocks. There is a good crack for setting gear about 15 feet back on the ledge.


Having the rope run over so much loose rock can definitely be a major safety concern for your follower. We could clove hitch into the anchor and step back to the edge of the sloping ledge, but, we would be unprotected in terrain where the likelihood of falling is high.


You can always extend your anchor and masterpoint using the munter Hitch!


  1. Build your anchor far away from the cliff edge.

  2. While staying on belay, clip into the masterpoint with a munter hitch on a locking carabiner. Make sure to lock this carabiner!

  3. Grab the brake strand and begin to lower yourself backdown the sloping ledge until you can see your partner.

  4. Feed out a little extra slack and tie a large overhand on a bight with both the load strand and brake strand. This overhand knot is our new masterpoint.

  5. Set up your belay and bring your partner up.

  6. Once they arrive at the belay stance, block the plate or belay device and begin to belay both people up to the high anchor.


 

Have we convinced you yet?


No other knot or hitch has so many different and unique attributes and applications within the vertical climbing realm. The munter hitch truly is a workhorse.


It's all too easy to learn a knot or skill once, and completely forget them when you need them most. Get out and practice with some friends, put your dog on belay with a munter, or spend a day working one on one with a professional guide to ensure you are the best climbing partner you can be!


Remember: No amount of online learning is substitute for hands on experience while working with a professional.


Have comments or questions? Drop us a comment below.


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